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HIGH EARLY STREHGTH 

PORTLAND CEMENT 



A USERS MANUAL 



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MARQUETTE 

HIGH EARL Y STREHGTH 

PORTLAND CEMENT 



. 



PREFACE 



F 



OR many years after the invention of portland cement 
_ in 1824, and even after the building of the first mill in 
the United States in 1872, many builders continued to use 
natural cements. This may be attributed principally to two 
causes: First, to the natural reluctance in those days to 
change from accepted methods and customs, when people 
were skeptical of new ideas; and second, to the slower methods 
of disseminating such information, or in educating the public 
and the builders to the superior advantages of portland cement. 

Since its introduction in this country, the quality of port- 
land cement has been steadily improved, due to refinements 
in manufacturing methods which assure greater purity and 
more uniform quality. 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement is a 
further scientific advancement in the manufacture of port- 
land cement. Its qualities and advantages have been thor- 
oughly tried and proven. We predict that its further use and 
acceptance will affect building and construction practices 
as greatly as did the transition from natural cement to 
portland cement. 

The advantages and economies in the use of Marquette 
High Early Strength Portland Cement will be readily appar- 
ent to any one who will study the subject and apply it to 
his own particular construction problems. 

This booklet explains the purposes and uses of Marquette 
High Early Strength Portland Cement under various classifi- 
cations and from different viewpoints. These classifications 
are treated in separate chapters for the reader's convenience, 
and, since many of the basic advantages in the use of this 
cement are applicable to all, a certain amount of repetition 
has been found unavoidable. 



MARQUETTE CEMENT MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Marquette Building Union Planters Bank Building 

CHICAGO MEMPHIS 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



The Purposes of Marquette 




Portland Cement 



Description of 
Characteristics of 



4 4 



i 4 



i » 



4 t 



i 4 



4 v 









5 



7 



9 



Why and How Should 









• > 



"be used 11 



What Marquette 



mm 



Portland Cement means 






to the Public . 13 

to the Owner 16 



to the Contractor 21 



• 



to the Stucco and Terrazzo Contractor 2 7 

to the Engineer 29 



• 



> the Architect 39 



to the Concrete Products Mam: cturer 4 

in the Oil Field 48 






to the Farmer 52 



to the Home Owner 5 



for Cold Weather Construction 58 



Design of Marquette 



■sen 



Concrete Mixtures and 



Recommended Construction Practices 



. 62 



Table 1— (With Graph) showing Compressive Strengths of 
Marquette lliu'AfirTU Concrete . 




Table 2— Recommended Water-Cement Ratios 



63 



64 



Table 3 — Quantities by Volume of Materials 
Table 4— Quantities by Weight of Materials 



66 



67 



© 1936 Marquette Cement Mfg. Co. 





Original 
and the 



plant of Marquette Cement Manufacturing Company as it was in 1898, 
modern up to date plants of today at La Salle, 111., above, and Cape 

Girardeau, Mo,, below. 



5 



The PURPOSES of 

Marquette [Hq! jj Portland Cement 



EVER since the Marquette Cement Manufacturing Company 
was founded in 1898, its plant facilities, manufacturing methods 
and products have constantly been improved and kept ahead of engi- 
neering developments and the demand for new and improved products. 
Marquette Cement has always been manufactured to exceed the 
Standard Specifications and Tests for Portland Cement prescribed by 
the United States Government and American Society for Testing 
Materials. 

These specifications not only control the chemical composition 
and certain physical characteristics of the finished product, but also 
require that the cement produce certain strength at given periods. 
Such test standards predetermine that concrete made with a given 
cement will be of adequate strength to meet the requirements of the 
concrete structural design, when the cement and satisfactory aggre- 
gates and water are correctly proportioned and mixed to form a 
concrete that is afterwards properly cured. 

In addition to this it has been found necessary and economically 
desirable in countless situations to secure this "adequate" strength 
more rapidly than formerly, and thus reduce the delay and incon- 
venience caused by waiting for ordinary concrete to harden suffi- 
ciently to be usable. 

As always, Marquette Cement Manufacturing Company was among 
the first to recognize this need and it was a pioneer in the field of High 
Early Strength cements. The American Society for Testing Materials 
has recognized the demand and necessity for such a cement and a 
Standard Specification for High Early Strength Portland Cement has 
been adopted. 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was made 
primarily to meet this requirement for a cement that will produce a 
strength in 24 hours or less, equivalent to the 7-day strength require- 
ment for regular portland cement. 

All of these specifications have been made in the interest of public 
safety, and have satisfactorily answered the purpose of most concrete 
construction work in the past, where the strength of the concrete has 
been the determining factor. 

In late years, however, increasing consideration is being given in 
the design of concrete mixtures to the importance of the factors of 



workability and density and their relation to the durability of the 
resultant concrete, by increasing its ability to resist the deteriorating 
effects of exposure to water, frost, organic acids, alkalis and gasses. 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement has also been 
developed to meet rhese requirements, so that it not only makes a 
24-hour Concrete that may be placed TODAY and used TOMORROW, 
but also, because of its properties as a higher quality cement, produces 
a more plastic and denser, hence more durable and stronger concrete. 

As a result of this, and because of the fact that Marquette High 
Early Strength Portland Cement so greatly surpasses the Standard 
Specifications, its use will result in economies both in time saved for 
the Owner in the earlier completion of the work (which is being 
recognized by leading Architects and Engineers) and in cost saving for 
the Contractor by expediting construction and by the easier handling 
of the concrete due to its greater workability. 




Marquette High Early Strength concrete used on this busy Chicago intersection 
permitted removal of dangerous barricades in hours instead of days. 




DESCRIPTION of 

Marquette HJ^ffj Portland Cement 



MARQUETTE High Early Strength Portland Cement is an 
improved portland cement manufactured in the same general 
manner as Marquette Cement. The various stages in the manufac- 
turing processes however are more highly refined, producing a product 
of greater effective fineness. 

All strengths of all portland cements are attained by the chemical 
combination of the cement with water. High early strength is attained 
by speeding up this chemical combination of cement with water. 

This may be done in three ways: 

1. By having the cement finely and effectively ground. 

2. By raising the percentage of lime in the basic composition. 

3. By adding an accelerating admixture. 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement is produced by 
the first method as it has been demonstrated that this is the best 
method of manufacturing a high early strength cement that will 
surely and uniformly produce the desired results without departing 
from the well recognized relationships of chemical compounds in 
portland cements. 

Fineness of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement is 
measured by determining the surface area of the fine particles. The 
greater the area of these particles coming in contact with water, the 
more quickly will the cement and water combine to produce high 
early strength and the 
more completely will 
they combine to de- 
velop higher later and 
ultimate strengths. 

Marquette High 
Early Strength Port- 
land Cement greatly 
exceeds the Standard 
Specifications for 
High Early Strength 
Portland Cement of 

,« . . c • . The extreme density or Marquette High Early 

tne American &OCiety Strength concrete insures the watertightness of this 

for Testing Materials. pool built for the Methodist Assembly at Arcadia, Mo. 




8 




Parking lot f 
• head of the 



a nt H C I vdjf Compan CI 

time pour - gular t-me*nt by u 

Strength Portland C- mrnt 






o, put into service days 

Marqu^M^ High f.arly 




CHARACTERISTICS of 

Marquette Wjffi jj Portland Cement 



'T^HE selection and proportioning of the materials in the com- 
-*■ position of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement and 
the effective fineness to which it is ground, produce the following 
results: 

/. High Early Strengths and Higher Later Strengths. 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement produces 

concrete of sufficient strength under normal conditions to 

permit its use in 24 hours or less. 

This high early strength is not secured at the expense of later 

strengths. On the contrary, concrete made with Marquette 

High Early Strength Portland Cement continues to increase 

in strength at relatively the same rate as regular portland 

cement and shows greater strengths at all times. 

During mixing and placing Marquette High Early Strength 

concrete remains workable and plastic about the same length 

of time as regular portland cement concrete. 

2. Greater Density, 

Because this cement is more efficient it will produce a denser 
concrete than a like volume of ordinary portland cement, 
other conditions being equal. This cement requires less water 
to obtain a given consistency than regular portland cement, 
thereby reducing the amount of water to evaporate and leave 
air voids, consequently resulting in less porosity and greater 
density. Dense concrete is impermeable, more watertight, 
and more durable. 

3. Greater Workability. 

The third important characteristic is its extreme plasticity. 
This cement produces a smoother mix, which not only trowels 
and finishes more easily, but also produces a more workable 
and easier flowing concrete, mortar or stucco. This is of 
particular value to the contractor who is confronted with 
any unusual problems of handling or placing. 



10 





11 



WHY and HOW should 

Marquette ffiffij Portland Cement 
be used? 



WHY? 



1. To obtain earlier use of structure. 

2. To secure quicker re-use of forms. 

3. To reduce cost of curing. 

4. To make easier handling concrete. 

5. To obtain earlier returns on the investment 

6. To produce more durable concrete. 

7. To meet emergencies. 

8. To reduce freezing hazards in winter. 



all of which 



SAVE TIME AND MONEY 



<^p 



HOW? 



Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement 
requires no special treatment on the job. It may be 

used the same as Marquette Cement. 



12 





1 




13 



WHAT 

Marquette Wjfc 



EA&K 



Portland Cement 



means 



to the PUBLIC 




T^HE value of high early strength concrete for the safety and con- 
venience of the public may be readily demonstrated. A striking 
example would be the repaving of a fire station driveway or floor, which, 
with the use of regular portland cement would be closed for a week or 
more. With Marquette High Early Strength Portland cement the fire 
department can be in service again in twenty-four hours or less. 

When paving a street in a business section, the merchants as well as 
the public would certainly benefit if each block could be opened to 
traffic the day after it was completed. Paving between street car 
tracks, at railroad crossings and streets being repaired can all be opened 
for earlier use, causing considerably less inconvenience and danger to 
the public by the quicker removal of barricades. Miles of detours can 
likewise be eliminated by opening Marquette High Early Strength con- 
crete to use in twenty-four 
hours or less instead of divert- 
ing traffic for a week or more. 

Furthermore, all streets 
intersecting another street 
under construction are block- 
ed and their use curtailed 
unless the intersections are 
promptly opened to traffic. 
Surely the use of Marquette 
High Early Strength Port- 
land Cement will be amply 
repaid by opening cross streets 

promptly with a consequent When concrete work has to be ready in 

reduction in detours, barri- e . mer * < f n £ ies ; Marquette High Early 

. . . Strength Portland Cement is the answer, as 

cades, and general inconveni- it was for these bleachers at the Hancock 

ence and danger to the public. High School in St. Louis County. 




14 




Consider the great importance of putting back into use streets and inter- 
sections, and of eliminating obstructions to unrestricted flow of traffic 
in a period of hours instead of days especially as it affects the efficient 
operation of such vital public services as policing and fire fighting. 

Aside from convenience and safety, if there is any truth in the state- 
ment that "time means money," an appreciable saving may be secured 
by the earlier use of Marquette High Early Strength concrete in various 
kinds of public works. 

In public works the question of durability is important. This may 
range from more watertightness or resistance to freezing and thawing, 
to special conditions where a high degree of impermeability is necessary 
to withstand the deteriorating influence of sewage or contaminated 
waters. 

Public works construction is a matter of public interest. Many 
officials are aware of the advantages of expediting public improvements 
and have used Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement not 
only for greater convenience and safety, but also to more effectively and 
economically build durability into concrete. 




This grade crossing on the Northwestern Railroad in Batavia, Illinois, was opened to 
traffic in a day's time by the use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement. 




TLAND C 




15 




To assure resisting the abrasive action of heavy steel tired trucks, this floor in the 
Aurora Metal Cabinet Company plant was finished with Marquette High Early 

Strength Portland Cement. 




Concrete pavement in the storage yard of the Chicago Pump Company had to be 

in service quickly and the finished job has to stand up under the severest punishment. 

Marquette High Early Strength concrete met these extreme requirements. 



16 



WHAT 



Marquette HEftf Portland 



Cement 



means to 



th OWNER 




WHETHER the Owner of a concrete project be a State, Munici- 
pality, School, Park, or Sanitary Commission, Railroad, 
Utility, Manufacturer or Individual Property Owner, each will be con- 
cerned with how the use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland 
Cement will bring about a required or desired result (not obtainable 
with regular portland cement) in many situations, several of which 
follow : 

(a) In emergencies where a project must be available for use at the 
earliest possible time. 

(b) In any situation where conditions require maximum density, 
impermeability, and watertightness. 

(c) In improvements or repairs where the time element is important 
because of public convenience, safety or interference with 
other work. 

(d) In earlier completion of a project which puts it into productive 
use and secures earlier earnings on the investment. 

Many examples can be cited to show the value and advantages of 
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement but we believe its 
economic value to the Owner may be more convincingly demonstrated 
by showing what it cost NOT to use it in a specific instance. 

Regular portland cement was used during the remodeling of a gas 
station, where service was maintained during construction, which 
included paving of drive-ways and reconstruction of the wash rack, 
oil changing and greasing facilities. The drives were paved one half 
at a time and each section was closed to traffic for seven days. During 
the fourteen day period, when one or the other of the drives were 
closed to traffic, the gasoline sales dropped 60%, equivalent to a daily 
loss of $60.00, or a total of $840.00 in gasoline sales volume. 



STRENGTH PORTLAND CB 







> 




Produt lion it lirdulrs 
of flic beer that made 
Milwaukee f amoui" 

could not be loflg in 

terrupt*- I it tin ^. hiiti 

Brewery. Marqu* e 

Hi di I arly h 

-urete fl were IB 

•er i ice 2 I i I lUTl «» let 

placing. 



18 




The oil changing, greasing, washing, and service department of 
the station had to be closed for a period of seven days, and the sales 
loss amounted to $33.33 per day, or a total of $233.31 for this depart- 
ment. This meant a total loss of $1,073.31 in sales volume for the 
entire station based on average monthly sales. 

Had Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement been used, 
each section of the pavement could have been opened in one day, 
causing interference with gasoline sales for only two days, or a loss of 
only $120.00 in sales. The balance of the station could have been 
opened in one day, reducing the sales loss to $33.33, or a total loss of 
only $153.33, instead of $1,073.31. 

The job required 110 barrels of cement, and the additional cost for 
Marauette High Early Strength Portland Cement in this instance 
would have been only a trifle over $50.00. By its use, twelve days 
could have been saved in gasoline sales and six days in service depart- 
ment sales. 







Unlocked for freezing 
weather threatened to 
interfere with the 
scheduled opening of 
this Service Station in 
Fulton, Kentucky* At 
the owner's request, 
Marquette High Early 
Strength Portland Ce- 
ment was used and the 
station was ready for 
business on time, de- 
spite the weather. 




19 




Printing the news cannot be delayed and because delays are eliminated with 
Marquette High Early Strength concrete, it was used for this motor foundation 

by the Chicago Daily Times 

This difference between the actual sales loss of $1,073.31 and the 
sales loss of only $153.33 if Marquette High Early Strength Portland 
Cement had been used, would have been $919.98 as shown below. 

Actual Loss of Sales Volume: 

14 days of Gas Sales @ $60.00 per day $840.00 

7 days of Oil, etc., @ $33.33 per day 233.31 

Total $1,073.31 

Loss in Sales Volume if Marquette High Early 
Strength Portland Cement were used: 

2 days of Gas Sales @ $60.00 per day $120.00 

1 day of Oil, etc., @ $33.33 per day • 33.33 

Total $ 153.33 

Difference which could have been saved $ 919.98 

This does not take into account the intangible loss of good will. 
The saving could have been made by the expenditure of a sum which 
would have been equivalent to less than Yi of 1 % of the total con- 
tract cost. 

The amount of time which can be saved on any job can be pre- 
determined, and the owner can easily decide the value of this time, 
so that the practical value of using Marquette High Early Strength 
Portland Cement can be evaluated readily by the owner. 

The above example proves the economy of Marquette High Early 
Strength Portland Cement in one instance which can be multiplied 
almost indefinitely; but in addition to economy the owner should take 
into consideration the greater durability of concrete made with Mar- 
quette High Early Strength Portland Cement due to its increased 
density and impermeability. 



20 





i. General view of substation being pre 

pared for moving 




3. Build 
placing a lay 



f additional floor support I 
avi'i of concrett underneath. 




5. \ rotary foundation show- 

.ind shoring | ess 




7. Building retting on 
embedded n 



ab< 



and b< 



v* 




2. View underneath the building show- 
tng rotary foundation and lally column 

foundation on jacks. 




4. Interior view showing large rotary 

com 01 ters. 




w r building showing eatt 

all direct druma wi.ile supporting 

slal> was pom id. 




Buil< g being transit" «d 



( r oni 



W\ n t ower at l m Chicago had to be moved 17 f * < t 10 permit *tr* 

widening quette High Early Strength I rtland Ct nt was Ihi material 

s< I d for underpinning and for the concrete mat over whic h tins I IVE MILLION 

POUM) load was moved to tin new location within 48 hours after placing. 

I». Gooc H.nntl.Mn Company, lr,< p Contractors, reported "Your High 
I m | Strength C nt left nothing to be desired and entirely fulfilled our I |Uire- 

mi s, allowing us to reduce our time from an eijhl da\ schedule, carrying a 



$100.00 a day penalt>. to forty 



ly aa 

days. 




21 



WHAT 




EA& 



Marquette DJgJjjgf j| Portland Cement 



STR 



means to the 



CONTRACTOR 



xjj} 

S3 


p 










" — "^^MISI ^J^ 




On Large Monolithic Structures 

TO the contractor engaged in the building of Dams, Railroads, 
Subways, Tunnels, Sewers and Bridges, Marquette High Early 
Strength Portland Cement will appeal chiefly from the standpoint 
of economies. 

Where large amounts of concrete are to be placed, the expense of 
conveying and placing this concrete, whether it be chiefly mechanical 
or labor expense, looms large in construction costs. While the grada- 
tion and proportioning of the aggregates largely determines the work- 
ability of any concrete mixture, it will be found that Marquette High 
Early Strength Portland Cement will make a harsh mixture more 
workable, and will increase the flowability or ease of handling of any 
combination of cement and aggregate over regular portland cement. 
This may mean that concreting towers will not have to be built so 
high, or that chutes will cover a larger area, or that in many other 
ways the concrete can be conveyed more cheaply, or it may mean 
lower labor costs in placing because one man can handle more concrete. 

In some phases of large construction work it will be found that the 
high early strength feature can be used to decrease costs by making 
it possible to strip forms and re-use them in l/7th of the time ordinarily 
required. This early strength will also make it possible to save money 
in the lesser time required for curing the concrete, which is particularly 
true in freezing weather. 

On Buildings 

While the foregoing reasons may apply equally to the building 
contractor, the greater workability of Marquette High Early Strength 
concrete is of particular interest because of the difficulties often 



22 



encountered in prop- 
erly placing reinforced 
concrete in beams, 
columns and other 
members, without 
segregation and the 
formation of gravel or 
stone pockets. Mar- 
quette High Early 
Strength concrete 
flows into place and 
stays in place. 




To insure rapid construction progress on this State 
institution building at Algoa Farms, Missouri, Mar- 
quette High Early Strength Portland Cement was used 

for all structural members. 



In certain types of 
concrete building 

construction, for example in mills or warehouses, when concrete can 
be placed TODAY and used TOMORROW, a great saving can be made 
in the earlier re-use of forms. 

The cost of protecting concrete buildings against freezing is con- 
siderable. When the protection period can be reduced to 1 7th of the 
time ordinarily required with regular portland cement concrete, not 
only is the hazard of freezing reduced, but also the cost of protecting 
against it. 



On Pavements 

Under many special circumstances or conditions, paving contractors 
have found it to their advantage to use Marquette High Early Strength 
Portland Cement. Cases in point are the closing of gaps or the building 
of small stretches of pavement where considerable money is saved by 
being able to finish up completely and get off the job in a matter of 
hours instead of being forced to maintain barricades, cross-over bridges 
at intersections, lighting and watchman service during a period of 
days. Marquette High Early Strength concrete can be completed 
and opened to use in 24-Hours or less. 

Another illustration of the advantage of the use of this cement is in 
connection with the desired completion of a pavement late in fall when 
there is danger of freezing. Since Marquette High Early Strength 
concrete passes the danger of freezing much more rapidly than if 
regular cement is used, the hazard of frozen concrete is greatly mini- 
mized and the cost of protecting against freezing is materially reduced, 
or perhaps entirely eliminated. 

In these cases as in many others, the slight extra cost to the con- 
tractor is many times offset by the savings made in labor costs or by 
reduction of the risks involved. 




23 



As Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement will produce 
a concrete as strong in 24 HOURS as regular portland cement will 
produce in 7 DAYS and considerably stronger in 3 DAYS than regular 
Portland cement in 28 DAYS, it is obviously not necessary to continue 
the curing and protecting of the concrete during hot and dry weather 
for the longer period required for regular portland cement concrete to 
attain required strength. This will not only mean considerably less 
material for covering, but also a decrease in labor cost of keeping 
it wet over the longer period. 

On Small Structures 

The contractor who specializes in smaller concrete work, such as 
foundations, sidewalks, driveways, pools, etc., will find Marquette 
High Early Strength Portland Cement particularly advantageous in 
enabling him to complete a job promptly and move his equipment 
elsewhere. 

The features which affect economies in other forms of concrete con- 
struction, namely, greater workability, quicker re-use of forms, shorter 
curing period, and reduction of danger of free/mg, are also applicable 
to the contractor specializing in these kinds of structures. 

In addition to economy, he should give consideration to the improved 
quality of his concrete work because of increased strength and greater 
density. Another important consideration is the shorter time in which 
the job can be put to use. All these factors contribute to the satis- 
faction of the owner, and build for the contractor a reputation for both 
quality and quick service. 




It isn't necessary to tie up men, money, and equipment on a small job. This short 
gap at Ottawa, Illinois, was paved and opened to traffic in LESS than 24-Hours 

with Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement. 



24 



Time Saved for All Contractors 

Whether the job be one requiring years to complete or one that can 
be finished in a day, the time element often means the difference 
between profit and loss. Rapid progress on any construction enter- 
prise is essential to success. The use of Marquette High Early Strength 
concrete may in various ways facilitate the progress of a job. On a large 
project the fact that it can be used in 24 HOURS may permit the 
additional use of equipment with resultant decrease in overhead. 

In a concrete building the work of subcontractors may be started 
that much earlier and their schedules be better co-ordinated, reducing 
much of the confusion frequently encountered. Because of its high 
early strength, greater workability and the lesser time required for 
curing, the paving contractor can speed up his completion time, and 
on small structures this time element is of considerable importance. 
The significance of the time element is demonstrated in the construc- 
tion of the pedestrian tunnel under Michigan Avenue in Chicago. In 
the Spring of 1935 this work was completed with Marquette High 
Early Strength Portland Cement in 117 hours less than the time 
allowed. As there was a penalty and bonus clause in the contract 
amounting to $25.00 per hour, this meant a bonus of approximately 
$3,000.00 to the contractor, who might have incurred a penalty, if 
regular portland cement had been used. 

This tunnel was built to insure the safety of the public in reaching 
the Oak Street Bathing Beach as crossing Michigan Avenue at the 
street level was extremely hazardous, due to automobile traffic, which, 
at this intersection, is probably heavier than at any other point in 
the City. 

As Michigan Avenue is the main artery from downtown Chicago to 
the north side and the north shore suburbs, many thousands of autoists 
were inconvenienced for a minimum period, which meant a saving 
of thousands of miles of detour and thousands of hours to the motor- 
ing public. 




Speed in placing this floor at Milwaukee was essential so Marquette 

Portland Cement turned over a completed job 24-Hours 

was started. 



Strength 



High Early 
arter work 




25 



► 




26 




1 



ATCree^Bay, Wisconsin, Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was 
used to stucco thi, home in winter, because its pla.tic.ty made it eas.er^to wo 



rk 



an 



d its high early strength eliminated all danger of freezing after 24-Hours 







The terrazzo floor in the Municipal Auditorium at St. Paul, is periodically flooded 

and frozen for skating. The concrete had to be durable and watertight so 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was selected for the work. 




27 



WHAT 



Marquette Hjjj^j-flj Portland Cement 



means to the •••••••••••• 

STUCCO AND TERRAZZO CONTRACTOR 




T 



HERE is probably no work in which cement is used where cohes- 
iveness and workability are such important factors as in the applica- 
tion of stucco. These factors vitally affect the labor cost of the job, 
which because of the nature of the work constitutes a large part 
of the expense. 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement makes a 
smoother mortar or stucco which spreads with the least effort. 
While its extreme plasticity, compared with regular portland cement, 
is its chief advantage to the Plastering or Stucco Contractor, there 
are many occasions where its high early strength also will be found 
advantageous in speeding up the work. The greater density obtained 
with Marquette High Early Strength stucco obviously makes it 
more resistant to the elements and to all other deteriorating influences. 
It can be used and finished and combined with mineral pigments for 
coloring the same as any portland cement. 

In terrazzo work, its greater plasticity and cohesiveness likewise 
makes it possible to place it with greater ease and consequent saving 
in time and labor. Its high early strength permits the contractor to 
begin grinding and polishing much sooner. 

High early strength does not mean premature hardening, as during 
the early stages of hydration, it acts the same as regular portland 
cement. The greater density of Marquette High Early Strength 
mortar also decreases the amount of "fill-in" usually required, 
which again means a saving in time and labor, as well as earlier 
completion of the work. 



28 




Railroad terminals must be repaired and maintained with a minimum of delay and 
inconvenience. This passenger walk for the C.M.St.P.&P. Railroad at Milwaukee 
was opened for service less than EIGHT HOURS after Marquette High Early 

Strength concrete was placed. 




Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was used in constructing this 
roof slab at the La Salle Street Station, Chicago, to minimize public inconvenience 

and maintain operating schedules and to secure durability. 




29 



WHAT 



merit 



Marquette H]^f|j Portland Ce 

means to the ENGINEER 




On Railroad Construction 

WHETHER in charge of Construction or Maintenance, the Rail- 
road Engineer is concerned with minimum disruption of operating 
schedules. This requires that all work on the right-of-way be executed 
on time. With concrete that can be used 24-Hours or less after placing, 
there is ample assurance that such work will be finished ahead of nor- 
mal time; or by the same token more concrete work may be scheduled 
for a certain period with the assurance that it will be ready for service as 
planned, in spite of the hazardous nature of much railroad construction. 

This early strength feature, however, is not the only advantage 
offered to the Railroad Engineer by Marquette High Early Strength 
Portland Cement. Much of the concrete used by railroads is subjected 
to extreme conditions of exposure, varying from the chemical action of 
stack fumes to freez- 
ing and thawing. 
To combat these 
disintegrating 
forces demands con- 
crete of maximum 
density. The proper 
design of concrete 
mixtures will help to 
accomplish this, but 
Marquette High Early 
Strength Portland 
Cement increases the 

density of any con- 
crete mix over regular The underpinning of this bridge for the Missouri 
.« , . , Pacific Railroad at Belle Chasse, Louisiana, was con- 

Portland cement be- structed and put into service in record time by the use 

Cause of its effective of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement. 




30 




fineness and resultant plasticity so that with a properly designed mix 
waterproof concrete will be obtained. 



On Bridge Construction 

The Engineer specializing in the design and construction of Bridges 
will be interested in the possibilities offered by Marquette High Early 
Strength concrete. Its earlier strength, making possible the quicker 
removal of hazardous barricades and dangerous detours, means greater 
public convenience and safety. Its higher later and ultimate strengths, 
together with its greater density, insure the durability of the structure. 
The shorter time required for curing is also a factor in opening a project 
to earlier use, and in cold weather, minimizes the risk of freezing 
and reduces the cost of curing. 

The appearance of the finished structure is greatly improved in that 
corners, lines and reliefs are more sharp and clean-cut because the 
greater worability of Marquette High Early Strength concrete causes it 
to flow into place much more readily and easily. It does not segregate 
leaving unsightly pockets when the forms are stripped, and its greater 
plasticity results in smoother and more pleasing finished surfaces. 




This grade crossing of the C.B.&Q. 
Illinois was back in service within 
Strength Portland Cement was used 



Railroad on the Batavia-Kaneville Road in 

24-Hours because Marquette High Early 

It saved miles of detours to the motorist. 




31 




Marquette High 
Early Strength 
Portland Cement 
was used for this 
pump house and 
grade elimination 
project at the 
Frisco tracks, 
Amory, Miss., to 
insure dense, im- 
permeable 
concrete. 




By placing a deck slab on the River Des Peres Parkway overhead crossing in St. 

Louis County with Marquette High Early Strength concrete, it was made ready 

for use by the time the substructure had attained its proper strength. 



32 




On Highway Construction and Maintenance 

Because the public, and principally the motoring public, is paying 
for highway construction, it would seem plausible that public conven- 
ience and safety should be considered in the building of highways. 
The use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement will permit 
a highway or bridge to be opened to traffic a week or so earlier than 
would be possible with regular portland cement, therefore the value 
of the time saved may be compared in advance with the cost of the 
saving of this time to ascertain whether conditions justify the 
additional expenditure. 

It should also be kept in mind that an improvement or replacement 
which causes a detour over a low type road means that the cost of 
driving is more than 33 } 3% greater per mile than the cost for the same 
distance on concrete. This additional cost is further greatly increased 
because detours are almost invariably two or three times longer than 
the road under construction. 

Although it is realized that repairs to concrete highways may usually 
be made without closing the entire road to traffic, nevertheless the 
inconveniences and hazards caused by one way traffic are considerable. 




Dangerous barricades, detours and inconvenience to the public were eliminated 
after 24-Hours by the use of Marquette High Early Strength concrete at tin' 

railroad crossing on State Road 67, in Indianapolis. 




GTH 




33 









Marquette High Early Strength con- 
crete used in re-locating Highway 12 
near Hudson, Wisconsin, minimized 
barricade hazards and inconvenience. 



The approaches to this bridge over the 
Tennessee River on Highway 60 in 
Kentucky were paved with Marquette 
High Early Strength concrete so th» 
bridge could be opened to traffic within 

24-Hours. 




The dangers of one-way traffic during highway repairs are reduced to the mini* 
mum when Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement is used. Barricades 

can be removed in less than 1 7th of the time ordinarily required. 



34 




Automobile accidents and fatalities are increasing, and, while bar- 
ricading one lane of a pavement for repairs is not a principal contrib- 
uting cause, nevertheless such conditions do cause many accidents 
and should be reduced to the absolute minimum. This reduction can be 
greatly aided by the use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland 
Cement. In fact, the entire elimination of barricades at night, when 
most of such accidents do occur, is not impossible. Patching and repair 
work can be started in the morning and opened to traffic before dark, 
when this high speed cement is used. 




Patch filled before 

eding. 



Patching the Lincoln High- 
way in Iowa in the morning 
with Marquette High Early 
Strength Portland Cement, 
enabling it to be opened to 
traffic the same day. 



Patch ready for finishing. 




35 




Another intersection in Chicago where Marquette High Early Strength Portland 
Cement answered the problem of making replacements with minimum public 

inconvenience and danger. 

On Municipal Construction 

In addition to the foregoing paragraphs regarding the convenience 
and safety of the motoring public, the Municipal Engineer recognizes 
the value of the use of a street to abutting property owners, tenants and 
the general public. In many cases this use will make the time element 
a matter of such importance that even one day's saving of time in 
opening a street to traffic, made possible by the use of Marquette High 
Early Strength Portland Cement, may be worth considerably more 
than the extra cost involved. 

The greater durability of Marquette High Early Strength concrete is 
a feature which merits attention in all concrete work placed in municipal 
construction, and it will be found that in many cases an additional 
expenditure, small as compared with the total cost of a project, will 
pay dividends over a period of years in terms of longer life and in greater 
freedom from recurrent expensive repair costs. 

This durability is particularly desirable in such work as the construc- 
tion of filter bed enclosures and other units of sewage disposal plants, 
sanitary and storm sewers, water filtration and water supply plants 
and municipal power plants, to mention but a few, and can be obtained 
most effectively with Marquette High Early Strength concrete, because 
of its greater workability and density. 



36 






37 



» 




38 





The pump house for the Sewage Disposal Plant at Batavia, Illinois, is located a few 
feet from the Fox River and below river level. It had to be watertight, so 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was used. 




Officials of the Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District of St. Paul, Minneso 
assured of rapid progress, and dense, durable concrete that will resist the 
of sewage by the use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement 

sewer work. 



ta, are 
action 
in this 



STHHNijTH HOR 1L 4 N i) OB 




39 



WHAT 

Marquette UiENGTH Portland Cement 

means to the ARCHITECT 




aaiitai 








* 






THK . i. [vantages in the use ot on etc in the design i dcootl 
of residences, schools, hospitals, pull - h igs, office b gs, 

warehouses and i I »iics, arc receiving ra; in easing re< | 

in the architecture! piofession. Its flexibility ;md i< y I i 

structural and architt ural d tign, ec< in COnetn ftgtl 

fireproofness and durability offer wide dtversi at n 1 , :al 

application to many pmblcmsof i aetrui land desifc 

Each of these desirable features is affc ted 1 the use ( I Marqi e 
High Early Strength concrete FUxi y and adaptabil are 

increased by its greater 

plasticity. Economies 
u ■/ be brought about 
by its superior work 
ability and in the 

■i Her use of the build 
ing. Strength is in 
creased at all periods 
a rut durability is 

I * itely affected by 
its impermeability. 



The architect who 
designs in concrete 
especially where archi 
tectural expression i 
oncerned, is vitally 
interested, among 
other things, m ex 
actly reproducing, in 




To speed construction and insure watertight concrete 
for this underground passage between the State Capitol 
and thf State Office Building at St. Paul. Minnesota, 
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement 

ipecihed and used. 



40 




the finished structure the design he creates. Surfaces of the desired 
texture must be obtained and they must be free from unsightly pockets 
or honey-comb. There must be no segregation in the concrete. Lines 
and corners and fine and delicate architectural details must stand out 
in sharp relief. The greater plasticity of Marquette High Early Strength 
concrete materially aids in accomplishing these results. 

In addition, the density and impermeability of Marquette High 
Early Strength concrete are essential qualities for watertight basements, 
roofs, swimming pools, tanks, industrial floors and platforms. 

The Architect is also concerned with the early strength value of 
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement as it results in: 

1. Economies in the earlier completion of the structure. 

(a) Their value to the builder or contractor. 

(b) The earlier use by the owner. 

2. The shorter time required for protecting and curing. 

(a) Its importance in minimizing the danger of freezing. 

3. Economies in construction due to: 

(a) Saving in cost of forms because of earlier removal and 
re-use. 

One other problem frequently confronting the architect is that of 
minimizing the delay and inconvenience to the owner or occupants in 
remodelling or making additions to a building, or in placing under- 
pinning. With concrete that can be placed TODAY and used TO- 
MORROW many hours and days of needless delay may be eliminated. 
In fact, the high speed performance of Marquette High Early Strength 
Portland Cement may offer opportunities to the Architect to recom- 
mend certain changes, which under other circumstances would not be 
considered practical by the owner, because of his preconceived idea of 
the delay and inconvenience caused by ordinary concrete construction. 



^ 




41 



: 




42 





1 







43 



WHAT 



msm 



Marquette [^JjjgfH Portland Cement 



means to the 



CONCRETE PRODUCTS MANUFACTURER 







AS in almost any other business, the manufacturer of Concrete 
Products has to compete both with other products used for a similar 
purpose and with other manufacturers making the same kind of prod- 
ucts. To meet such competition successfully demands that within 
certain limitations he produce the highest quality product at the lowest 
possible cost. He must then constantly balance production, selling, 
and other overhead costs against quality. If he can produce as good a 
product at less cost this means extra profits because of production 
economies. If he can make a better product without increasing produc- 
tion costs he will make extra profits because of increased sales of such 
better products. Surely then if he can increase quality and at the 
same time decrease cost he profits from both the lower cost and from 
the increased sales of superior products. 

The use of Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement offers 
this possibility to the manufacturer of all kinds of concrete products, 
be they blocks, precast joists, tile, pipe, precast stone, architectural 
details, imitation marble, burial vaults, culverts, posts, piles or 
other special products. 

The characteristics of Marquette High Early Strength Portland 
Cement help to reduce costs in several different ways. 

First, its high early strength, allowing quicker handling and use of 
products, makes it possible to keep a smaller inventory of finished 
products on hand. This smaller inventory requires less space for 
storage, and space and buildings cost money whether rented or owned. 
Less inventory also means less money invested in the labor and materials 
which go into the finished products. These then tend to decrease the cost 
of doing business. But as to whether the decrease will be sufficient to 



44 





This products plant at Waterloo, Iowa, uses Marquette High Early Strength Port- 
land Cement in manufacturing pre-cast stone which successfully and profitably 

competes with Bedford Stone. 



more than offset the additional cost of Marquette High Early Strength 
Portland Cement will depend upon individual plant conditions and 
operating methods. That this is possible has been proven by others, and 
each products manufacturer might well experiment and definitely prove 
to his own satisfaction the amount of saving that may result. 

The second way in which Marquette High Early Strength Portland 
Cement saves money is in its help in building up sales, by being able to 
produce and offer superior products for sale. If a manufacturer can 
build up a demand for his products in preference to competitive prod- 
ucts, because of their superior quality, it stands to reason that he will 
sell more of them with no more selling effort. This means greater 
volume and more rapid turnover with a proportionately smaller over- 
head and sales expense per unit. Concrete products made with Mar- 
quette High Early Strength Portland Cement are denser than similar 
products made with regular cement. This impermeability means that 
they will better withstand severe exposure conditions, be more nearly 
waterproof, and better resist all deteriorating influences, all of which 
are convincing selling arguments. 

One other advantage is in filling emergency orders. Concrete products 
can be quickly made and delivered with the least possible delay when 
made with Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement. 



STRHNirTH RORTLAND CH 




45 





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46 






Pre-cast trim for this garage building and fire station in Waterloo, Iowa, were 
manufactured and delivered on short notice because Marquette High Early 

Strength Portland Cement was used. 



> fHENOTH PORTLAND 





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48 




WHAT 



Marquette H]^^|jj Portland Cement 
means in the OIL FIELD 




FROM the drilling of oil wells to the construction of Service 
Stations, cement and concrete are used extensively in converting 
crude oil in the ground to gasoline in the motor car. In all of these 
operations speed is highly important from a money-saving standpoint. 
Wells have to be drilled and capped as quickly as possible, just as cus- 
tomers have to be served with the least possible delay and incon- 
venience at the Filling Station. 

Aside from the earlier use obtained with Marquette High Early 
Strength Portland Cement, its greater plasticity with a given amount 
of water, as compared to regular portland cement, is a decided asset in 
oil well drilling. Its physical and chemical properties also produce an 
impermeable concrete of maximum density, so advantageous for all the 
uses of concrete in the petroleum industry. 

An oil well is a producing plant; and the cement used in its con- 
struction is a vital factor in the protection of the source of supply, in 
the efficiency of the producing well and in the permanency of the 
subsurface structure. Time is a most important element in the drilling 
or repair of a well as an extra few days of shut-down, with the well 
delayed or off-production, may make the cementing operation a costly 
procedure. 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement helps to eliminate 
these delays in oil well operation by providing a grout or slurry that 
will attain its strength days ahead of regular portland cement, and yet 
not have an accelerated initial set, so frequently encountered by the 
use of re-agents. Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement 
during the first stages of hardening acts about the same as regular 
portland cement. 

These characteristics of high early strength without accelerated 




49 



initial set, greater workability and greater density, are of particular 
value under such conditions as are described below. 

The cementing of casing is one of the most important operations in 
the drilling and completion of an oil well. This is especially true of 
the water string which protects the producing zone from migration 
of water or other fluids from above. With the deep wells now being 
drilled, the long strings of even Grade D casing closely approach their 
collapse strength. This cement therefore provides a reinforcement for 
the pipe as well as secures a water shut-off; and the present trend is to 
carry the cement up behind the string well beyond the point where a 
suitable factor of safety is reached. 

Every delay during drilling is costly and cement is frequently the 
means for reducing shut-down time. Subsurface conditions naturally 
vary but creviced formations which cause lost circulation can frequently 
be overcome by the proper application of this cement, either with or 
without other material. Caving is also a source of trouble which can 
often be overcome by cement. In all such work, the more rapidly the 
strength of the cement develops— the less will be the time lost. 

Cement has long been used as a means of sidetracking and a high 
early strength and increased plasticity is advantageous in speeding 
up this operation. Under general conditions, the well is kept as nearly 
vertical as possible; but since it will sometimes wander off its course, 
it must be brought back. A cement plug placed at the point where it 
starts off will sometimes be the quickest and easiest way of bringin 
the hole back to vertical. In many cases the hole is enlarged at the 
bottom before being filled with cement. 

Redrilling operations — whether in a new hole to be sidetracked or 
straightened, or in an old hole where a new position in the sand is 
desired or other corrections have to be made — frequently provide an 
opportunity for economy by using a high early strength cement plug. 

The plugging off of bottom water can often be done by dumping 
cement in the hole when no pressure is present. With modern equip- 
ment, the cement can now be placed under any pressure and the 
pressure maintained until the cement has hardened. Moreover, it is a 
growing custom to cement behind as well as inside the liner if such pipe 
is left in the hole. This insures a complete shutoff of water from below 
and is especially necessary in plugging back operations where the 
cement plug is carried up to near the bottom of an upper productive 
zone. 

There is an increased use of cement for repair work since special 
equipment provides a means of placing the cement and keeping it 
where it will be effective. Intermediate water sands are frequently 
shut off by putting the cement behind the liner only at the place where 



50 




<v bfi 





51 



the water shows up, and thus protecting the oil sands above and 
below. 

The shutting-in of high pressure wells that have gotten out of con- 
trol has frequently been accomplished with cement. In many cases 
the entire cellar has been filled with concrete. Present practices prob- 
ably prevent such emergency measures since the first string of casing is 
securely cemented and subsequent strings tied in with it by landing 
heads. Also, it is becoming a universal practice to cement each string 
as soon as it is landed. With proper high pressure fittings and blow- 
out preventers a well can always be kept under control; and a string 
of casing can be cemented even if the hole penetrates a high pressure 
sand before the pipe is run. 

For all of these operations the amount of water used in making the 
cement slurry for oil well use naturally has considerable influence on 
the strength of the grout. The lower the amount of water the denser 
will be the slurry: and the thickest slurry that can be handled will give 
the best job. In oil field practice, however, the conditions of a par- 
ticular job to be performed may necessitate different water-cement 
ratios. The average is about 5 gallons of water per sack of cement or a 
water-cement ratio of about 44 per cent, but the fact that Marquette 
High Early Strength Portland Cement does not require as much 
water to secure a given consistency, as with regular portland cement, 
enables it to attain greater density with equal plasticity using less 
water, or equal density and greater flowability with a similar water- 
cement ratio. 

In such construction as machinery and engine foundations, derrick 
footings and storage tanks in the field, to the building of floors, drive- 
ways, greasing pits, foundations, walls or stucco for the Filling Station 
the early strength and other qualities of Marquette High Early Strength 
Portland Cement are almost indispensable to the Oil Industry. 



^ 



52 



WHAT 



Marquette Bjjf jj Portland Cement 



means 



to the FARMER 




BECAUSE of its permanence and adaptability, concrete has become 
the outstanding building and repair material for farm structures. 
No matter where it is used — for a foundation wall, for a barn floor or 
barnyard pavement, for fence posts, or for a watering tank — concrete 
is readily made and once placed is there to stay. Through the snow 
and ice of winter, the rain and burning sun of summer, concrete lives 
on indefinitely without decay, rot or warping. Neither termites nor 
rats can eat it. Surely concrete is the ideal material for building 
and repairing on the farm. 

But because of the seasonal aspect of farming and nature's urgent 
demands on the farmer's time, whatever building or improvements 
he undertakes must be done in what is lightly termed as his "spare" 




Marquette High Early Strength concrete was used to speed construction and 
assure dense durable concrete to resist action of ammonia salts in this cow 

barn at Taycheedah, Wisconsin. 




53 



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time. This is either during the winter or during short spells of inclement 
weather. If he is building of concrete, which is so applicable for most 
farm improvements, Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement 
will be found useful under both of the above conditions. 

In the winter time its high early strength reduces the hazard of 
freezing, because if the temperature has not dropped below 30 degrees 
within 24 to 48 hours after the concrete was placed (assuming the 
temperature to have been above freezing when placed), a further drop 
in temperature will not affect it, as it has hardened sufficiently or 
developed enough strength within that time to withstand further 
freezing weather. This would not be the case with regular portland 
cement concrete, which might be frozen and perhaps ruined any time 
from a week to 10 days after being placed. 

When weather conditions prevent or interrupt the regular farm work, 
and because of this interruption some form of concrete improvement 
is started, it is usually a decided advantage for the farmer to complete 
it as rapidly as possible before it is necessary for him to work elsewhere. 
Under such conditions it will be a distinct advantage to remove the 
forms and continue with the work 
the day after the concrete is placed, 
instead of waiting for a week or more 
for ordinary concrete to cure and 
harden. The use of Marquette High 
Early Strength Portland Cement, 
under such conditions, will make this 
possible. 

Ordinary concrete, if placed in real 
hot, dry weather, must be kept moist 
and covered from 10 to 14 days, dur- 
ing the curing period which usually 
means wetting it at least once a day. 
This is a nuisance in busy times. With 
Marquette High Early Strength con- 
crete this curing and protection may 
be discontinued the second day after 
the concrete is placed. 

The farmer will also find its greater 
workability will make it easier to 
handle in the forms, requiring less 
work; and the fact that it makes a 
denser and more watertight concrete 

...:n u« ~r -.-~~+-;~~l ^ j ..«.,«-«,».« :„ -~ Preserving silos with an inside coat- 

will be of practical advantage in many ing of g, arquette H igh Early 

Of the uses of concrete On the farm. Strength Portland Cement mortar. 





55 



WHAT 



Marquette ffijjj fj Portland Cement 



means to the 



HOME OWNER 




IT is customary in building a home to accept the architect's judgment 
and experience in all matters pertaining to architectural and structural 
design, selection of materials and other technical questions involved. 
This is proper and fitting because that is the architect's function. 
However, you might reasonably ask him why he recommends a partic- 
ular design or material, or ask his opinion as to the merits of some 
other method or material. 

In dealing with your architect, you have no doubt told him in 
advance about the size and style of the house you want, and have also 
stipulated certain features which you want embodied in your home. 
Unless you have made a study of the subject, these preferences will 
probably be limited to the appearance, arrangement, and comfort of 
your home. In addition to these features, you should also be equally 
concerned with its permanence, its serviceability, and its saleability. 
You want a roof that will not leak, walls that will not crack, and a 
basement that is watertight and easily kept clean. You want a founda- 
tion that will stand against time and that will not be attacked by 
termites. (Termites are constantly destroying wooden foundations of 
homes and buildings, and their destructive activities are spreading 
over wider areas every year.) You should consider the advantages of 
a first floor of concrete to make a fireproof basement, as most residential 
fires start in the basement. 

Perhaps you are building one of the modern all concrete homes 
which are becoming increasingly popular, but regardless of the amount 
of concrete in your home, you will want all the concrete to be durable 
and watertight. 

At practically no additional cost, because of economies resulting 
from its use, you can secure the advantages of the superior qualities of 
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement, particularly for all 



56 




TTE 





Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was used in the stucco work on 
this home in Libertyville, Illinois, because its extreme plasticity and workability 

assured the highest grade job. 



exposed exterior concrete work and foundations as well. Your architect 
or builder knows and will confirm to you the worth of denser, more 
durable and watertight concrete. All these qualities may be obtained 
most effectively with this cement. 

Another advantage, if you are in a hurry to occupy your home, is 
the saving in time accomplished by using Marquette High Early 
Strength concrete, which attains its strength within twenty-four hours 
after it is placed, under normal weather conditions, instead of the 
week or more required for regular concrete to harden. 

If your home is built in cold weather, ordinary concrete is apt to 
freeze at any time within fourteen days after placing. This necessitates 
either protection against freezing for this period, or incurring the risk of 
getting an unstable concrete job. With the use of Marquette High 
Early Strength Portland Cement, which causes the concrete to harden 
within 24-Hours, beyond the possiblity of damage from freezing, this 
risk is greatly minimized and the cost of protection from freezing is 
also materially reduced. 

For concrete improvements around the home, whether they be for 
utilitarian purposes such as walls, steps, drives, walks and porch floors, 
or for decoration such as sun dials, bird baths, pools and arbors, 
Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement will make it easier 
and more certain to get a first class job and one that will endure. 




57 



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mar gun TT F 




The VALUE of 

Marquette HIjjJJurTjj Portland Cement 

for COLD WEATHER CONSTRUCTION 




THERE are many reasons why it is desirable and valuable to start 
or continue concrete construction in cold weather. A few such 
reasons follow : 

The owner avoids delay in getting into a new structure which was 
started in late fall or early winter. He is given the advantage of the 
earliest use of additions, or remodeling jobs, or forced rebuilding after 
a fire. These savings of time mean money savings to owners. 

Cold weather construction work is an advantage to labor because 
it affords steady all year round employment. 

The contractor gains by winter construction because it enables him 
to maintain a permanent organization with a consequent reduction of 
overhead expense. This also applies, to some extent, to the architect 
and engineer. 

Every day of delay in the completion of a needed improvement 
means inconvenience and perhaps hazard to the general public, 
especially in winter. Streets and sidewalks and other improvements 
can be constructed or repaired to the advantage of the public in cold 
weather. Park improvements, pools, etc., also can be built in cold 
weather, thus assuring use in the spring and summer. 

Winter construction with concrete can be just as satisfactory as 
that placed in any other season, and the quality of the concrete is 
just as good. The old time inhibition about concrete work in cold 
weather was largely a matter of habit and custom and not one of 
climatic necessity. Today much of such work is done in winter as a 
matter of course, and the amount of this work increases every year 
as the advantages and the relative ease and economy of doing it 
become more generally understood. 

A simple statement of the procedure necessary in cold weather 
construction is that temperatures of 50 to 70° F. must be maintained 



59 




60 




#^=S 




in the concrete mixture, both before and after placing, until it has 
attained a degree of hardness that will prevent injury from freezing. 
Obviously then, if a cement is used in the concrete mixture which 
will bring about this necessary hardness in approximately 1 7th of 
the time when regular cement is used, the period of time during which 
protection from freezing is needed is reduced by just that much. 

This results in substantial savings in cost of heating and protection. 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement will accomplish 
this saving of time and money. The effective fineness to which it is 
ground, together with its high grade basic properties, cause it to 
combine with the water in the concrete mix much more rapidly and com- 
pletely than is the case with regular cement, hence its high early 
strength. 

For best results in cold weather construction with Marquette High 
Early Strength Portland Cement, the water and aggregates should 
be heated so that the temperature of the concrete when placed will 
not be less than 70° F. nor more than 100° F. During the curing 
period the concrete should be protected and the temperature main- 
tained approximately at 70° F. but under no circumstances allowed to 
drop below 50° F. Under these conditions the time required for 
Marquette High Early Strength concrete to pass the danger of freezing 
is reduced to a minimum and the total cost of concreting is brought 
very closely in line with the cost when placed in warmer weather. 
Except under extreme and very unusual conditions Marquette High 
Early Strength concrete will pass this danger of freezing in 24 hours 
or less, provided, of course, temperature of the concrete mixture is 
maintained at approximately 70° F. both before and after placing. 




In zero weather this six-foot conduit was built by the Water Department of St. 

Paul, Minnesota. Such work demanded concrete of highest early strength and 

greatest density. Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement was used. 




61 




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62 



DESIGN of 

Marquette Hjjjjrj^flj Concrete Mixtures 
and Recommended Construction Practices 



V 



AST research, both in the laboratory and in the field, has estab- 
lished certain facts about concrete mixtures from which has 
developed the following Water-Cement Ratio Law: 

"For plastic mixtures, using sound and clean aggregates, the strength 
and other desirable properties of concrete under given job conditions 
are governed by the net amount of mixing water per sack of cement." 

Previously this law was applied only to compressive strength but 
later developments have proved that it also controls density, resistance 
to wear and the bond between concrete and steel. 

The law will be more readily understood if one thinks of cement and 
water as a paste which, upon hardening, binds the aggregate particles 
together to form a solid mass. The more water added to the paste 
the more diluted it becomes, therefore weaker and less watertight 
Since the strength and density of the concrete are directly dependent 
upon the strength and density of the paste, it will be seen that to 
dilute the paste is to reduce the strength and durability of the concrete. 

It follows then that the procedure in the design of a High Early 
Strength concrete mixture involves: 

1. The selection of the proper Water-Cement Ratio which will give 
the desired strength and durability for any particular age. 

2. Determining the most suitable and economical combination of 
aggregates which will give the desired workability with this 
Water-Cement Ratio. 

A High Early Strength Concrete Mixture designed in accordance 
with the foregoing will provide: 

1. Necessary strength, 

2. Durability to resist the actions of the elements, 

3. Workability to permit proper placing, 

4. The most economical use of available materials, and will establish 
a proper balance between these four essentials. 




63 



TABLE 1 



Age of 
Concrete 


Gallons of Mixir 


ig Water per Sack of Cement 


J 


4 gals. 


5 gals. 


6 gals. 


7 gals. 


8 gals. 


1 Day 


3600 lbs. 


2700 lbs. 


2000 lbs. 


1400 lbs. 


900 lbs. 


3 Days 


5500 lbs. 


4200 lbs. 


3400 lbs. 


2600 lbs. 


2000 lbs. 


7 Days 


6600 lbs. 


5300 lbs. 


4400 lbs. 


3800 lbs. 
4800 lbs. 


1300 lbs. 

4100 lbs. 


28 Days 


7500 lbs. 


6300 lbs. 


5500 lbs. 



1000 



7000 



6000 



5000 



4000 



1000 



1000 



1000 




5 6 7 

GALLONS Of WATER PER SACK 



TABLE and GRAPH showing Compressive Strengths of machine mixed Marquette 

High Early Strength concrete in pounds per square inch at different ages with 

various water-cement ratios, (U. S. gallons of water per sack of cement.) 



64 




TABLE 2 



MARQUETTE 



RECOMMENDED WATER -CEMENT 

HI EH " - 



mm 



DIFFERENT 



DEGREES OF EXPOSURE 



Class of 
structure 



Exposure 



Extreme: 

1. In severe climates like in northern U. S., ex- 
posure to alternate wetting and drying, freezing and 
thawing, as at the water line in hydraulic structures. 

2. Exposure to sea and strong sulphate waters in 
both severe and moderate climates. 



Severe: 

3. In severe climates like in northern U. S., ex- 
posure to rain and snow, and freezing and thawing, 
but not continuously in contact with water. 

4. In moderate climates like southern U. S., ex- 
posure to alternate wetting and drying, as at water 
line in hydraulic structures. 



Moderate: 

5. In climates like southern U. S., exposure to 
ordinary weather, but not continuously in contact 
with water. 

6. Concrete completely submerged, but protected 
from freezing. 



Protected: 

7. Ordinary inclosed structural members; con- 
crete below the ground and not subject to action of 
corrosive groundwaters or freezing and thawing. 



Water-cement ratio, U. S. gal. per sack* 



Reinforced 

piles, thin walls, 

light structural 

members, 

exterior 

columns and 

beams in 

buildings 



5H 



Reinforced 
reservoirs, 
water tanks, 
pressure pipes, 

sewers, 

canal linings, 

dams of thin 

sections 



sy 2 



6*4 



7H 



6 



Heavy walls, 

piers, 

foundations, 

dams of 

heavy 

sections 



6 J* 



IVi 



SH 



*Surfacc water or moisture carried by the aggregate must be included es part of the mixing water 



To obtain superior results with the use of Marquette High Early 
Strength Portland Cement the following recommendations are made 
as a guide in the selection of materials, design of concrete mixtures and 
construction practices. 

General 

Any structure should be designed and all work carried out under 
the supervision of a competent architect or engineer. 

Cemenr 

Shall be Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement. 

Aggregates 

Bank or pitrun aggregates shall not be used. 




65 



Fine Aggregate 

Shall be sand consisting of hard, strong and durable particles, well 
graded from fine to coarse within the following limits: 

Passing a % inch screen 100% 

Passing a No. 4 Sieve 85-100% 

Passing a 16 mesh sieve 45-80% 

Passing a 50 mesh sieve 2-30% 

Passing a 100 mesh sieve 0-5% 

It shall be free from injurious amounts of organic impurities and 
shall not contain harmful amounts of clay, shale, coal or other dele- 
terious matter. 

Coarse Aggregate 

Shall be crushed stone, gravel or other approved material consisting 
of hard, strong and durable particles, free from adherent coatings 
and injurious amounts of clay, coal and other deleterious substances. 

It shall be well graded from fine to coarse within the following limits: 

Designated Percentages retained on Laboratory Sieves Having 
Size Square Openings 

2" iy 2 " 1" H" Vi' H" No. 4 

2" to #4 0-5 30-65 70-90 95-100 

\\/ 2 " to #4 ... 0-5 .... 30-65 70-90 95-100 

1" to #4 0-10 40-75 90-100 

%" to #4 0-10 45-80 90-100 

2" to 1" 0-10 30-65 85-100 

\y 2 " to %' ... 0-10 45-80 85-100 



Mixing Water 

Shall be from an approved source and as used shall be clean and fit 
for drinking. It shall be as close as possible to 70° F. and in no 
case below 50°. 

Proportioning 

(a) Select the proper water-cement ratio for the strength required 
at any particular age. (See Table 1) 

(b) Select the proper water-cement ratio for the exposure condi- 
tions. (See Table 2) 

(c) Use the lower of the above two water-cement ratios. 

(d) Trial batches are recommended as the best method to arrive 
at the desired mix. Make up a few trial batches of different 
proportions of the fine and coarse aggregate with the selected 
water-cement ratio until the desired workability is obtained 
and use that mix which weighs the most per cubic foot. 



66 




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Arbitrary Mixes 

For common construction purposes the proportions of cement, fine 
and coarse aggregate will approximate 1 : 2 : 3. This will contain 
approximately 6 sacks of cement per cubic yard of concrete and 
should contain not more than 6 gallons of water per sack of cement. 

Mixing 

All concrete shall be mixed continuously for 114, minutes after all 
materials, including water, are in the mixer drum. 

Placing 

Concrete shall be placed so that it may be worked into its final 
position with the least amount of rehandling. At day-to-day con- 
struction joints, or when fresh concrete is placed on concrete already 
hardened, the old surface shall be clean, rough, free from any form 
of laitance, and wetted. A rich grout of cement and sand shall be 
brushed into the old surface immediately before the fresh concrete 
is placed in contact with it. 

C u tin g 

All concrete shall be kept moist and protected from drying out too 
rapidly during the early part of the period in which it is attaining 
its designed strength. The temperature shall be kept as close as 
possible to 70° F. and in no case allowed to go below 50° F. 

Temperature 
The temperature of the water and aggregates shall be such that 
the temperature of the concrete when placed shall be as close as 
Dossible to 70° F. and shall in no case be below 50° F. 



WEARING OR TOP COURSE FOR FLOORS 

Proportions — 1:2^ (using sand) or 1:1:1V£ to 1:1:2 (using coarse 
aggregate). 

Thickness — 1 inch minimum. 

Grading of Aggregates —Clean, sharp sand passing 100% through a 
34 inch screen with not more than 20% through a No. 50 screen, 
and not more than 3% through a No. 100 screen. Coarse aggregate 
passing % inch screen. 

Consistency — The mortar shall be the driest possible to work with 
a sawing motion of the strikeboard. This will require about 3J^ 
gallons of water per sack of Marquette High Early Strength Portland 
Cement. 

Mixing — Not less than 2 minutes after materials are in mixer drum. 

Placing — This course shall be placed immediately after mixing and 
deposited on the base concrete before it has appreciably hardened, 
being brought to the established grade with a strikeboard. 




69 



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70 




Finishing— In about 2 hours thereafter it shall be worked with a 
wood float thoroughly compacting it and providing a surface free 
from depressions or irregularities. This time shall elapse to permit 
excess water to evaporate from the surface and enable the concrete 
to partially harden, preventing drawing to the top the finer particles 
of cement, sand and excess water from the body of the concrete. Dry 
cement or a mixture of dry cement and sand musr not be sprinkled 
on the surface to absorb moisture or hasten the hardening. The 
finisher must wait until any particular section is ready to trowel 
and then complete the steel troweling in one continuous operation 
as the successive areas of floor become ready. Avoid excessive 
troweling. 

NEW TOP COURSE ON OLD BASE SLAB 

Preparation of Slab— The surface of the old base slab shall be thor- 
oughly roughened by picking or other means and cleaned of all 
dirt and debris. Scrub surface with a 20% solution of muriatic 
acid and then remove all traces of acid with a stream of water from 
a hose. The slab shall be thoroughly moist but free from film or 
pools of water. Next Marquette High Early Strength Portland 
Cement shall be dusted onto and thoroughly brushed into the old 
prepared surface immediately before the wearing or topping course 
is applied insuring a thorough bond. This shall also apply in any 
case where it has not been possible to place the wearing course 
before the base course has hardened. 

Curing of Floor Surface — Concrete shall be kept moist and not 
permitted to dry out for 24 hours after placing. 

STUCCO 

Proper flashing should be used at every place where it would be 
possible for water to get behind the stucco. In general, the construc- 
tion shall protect the surface against excessive concentrated water 
flow, horizontal projections being provided with overhanging drips 
and watertight joints. 

Reinforcement shall consist of expanded metal or wire fabric, with 
openings large enough to permit complete embedding of the rein- 
forcing under conditions of actual practice. 

Mortar for scratch coat shall be of 1:2^ proportions, and for second 
coat 1 :3 proportions. The surface of each coat shall be cross-scratched 
and cured properly for as long a time as possible before the application 
of the following coat. This is to seal shrinkage cracks which some- 
times occur. The finish coat shall provide only color and texture to 
the surface. 

Marquette High Early Strength Portland Cement shall be used 
and finished and combined with mineral pigments for coloring, the same 
as regular portland cement. 



Further and more detailed information on the 
use and advantages of Marquette High Early 
Strength Portland Cement under any unusual 
conditions, or in connection with the design of 
High Early Strength Concrete mixtures, selection 
of materials, etc., may be obtained by submitting 
the particular problem to the Service Department. 



Address 



MARQUETTE CEMENT MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Marquette Building Union Planters Bank Building 

CHICAGO MEMPHIS 






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